Carmina Nina R Salac has completed her degree in Doctor of Medicine in the University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines, in 2011. She has completed her Residency in Pediatrics in University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila in 2015. She is currently a Pediatric Junior Consultant in various hospitals in the country.
Overweight and obesity are emerging major problems among children today worldwide. Research on parent feeding styles and practices has begun to provide some clues about the role parents play in the etiology of childhood obesity. Only recently has attention been directed toward the parental feeding styles. Experts have suggested that gestation to early infancy is a critical period in which physiologic changes occur that greatly influence a child's later risk for obesity. The objective of the study is to examine validity and reliability of an instrument translated to Filipino language for characterizing parental feeding practices. Subjects were the parents with toddlers from the University of Santo Tomas Hospital. A focus group discussion was done. The toddler feeding questionnaire was translated to Filipino language. A final questionnaire underwent pretesting and Cronbach’s alpha test. Data analysis was done using Strata SE version 13. Quantitative variables were summarized while qualitative variables were tabulated. Test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha tests were done. A total of 18 parents participated in the study. About 89% of the toddlers had normal weight according to the WHO growth standards (weight for length). All but two items (Q18 and Q33) in the final questionnaire reached significant differences (p<0.05). The overall internal reliability of the questionnaire was acceptable (alpha=0.82). This instrument was found to be valid with acceptable reliability and internal consistency.
Lujain Abdulaziz Almousa has completed her Doctorate in Human Nutrition from College of Food and Agricultural, King Saud University in 2012, Master in General Nutrition in 2007 and Bachelor’s degree in Nutrition and food Science in 2002 from Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, KSA. Presently she is pursuing PhD degree at The University of Nottingham, UK.
Magnesium is required for many physiological reactions. It is a cofactor in many metabolic processes and is essential in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Magnesium status may impact upon cardiovascular health. Low extracellular magnesium concentrations have a negative impact on endothelial cell proliferation, increase monocyte adhesion, inhibit cell migration and markedly alter endothelial cell gene expression. In this study we investigated whether different concentrations of magnesium sulfate could affect the gene expression for adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVECs were cultured in different MgSO4 concentrations: 0.1 mM, 5mM and compared to the physiological circulating concentration (1 mM). Total RNA was extracted, followed by cDNA synthesis, in order to determine expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM1), low magnesium (0.1 mM) significantly up-regulated ICAM (46%, P<0.05) but not VCAM relative to physiological concentration within 24 hours. On treatment of cells with 0.5 ug lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 hours to induce an inflammatory response, it was noted that the effect of low magnesium persisted for ICAM and that VCAM was also up-regulated relative to the control. In contrast, the high magnesium concentration reduced the cell adhesion molecule expression (VCAM 74%, ICAM 56%, P<0.05) when cells were incubated with LPS. The present study has demonstrated that low magnesium increases adhesion molecule expression, which induces an overexpression of the inflammatory phenotype in endothelial cells. Additional magnesium suppresses the inflammatory response. The findings of this study support the importance of the nutritional intake of magnesium in maintenance of cardiovascular health.